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ETYMOLOGY OP LOCAL HAMES.                                        341
at the two first is there any Sarae actually in existence ; both of these are
large and substantial buildings erected by local Governors on the line of the
old Imperial road between Agra and Labor, The others were probably mere
ranges of mud huts, like the ordinary Sarae of the present day, and have there-
fore long since disappeared.
The Persian terminations a?>dd and ganj, which predominate so largely IE
soirie parts of India, have been little nsed in Hindi-speaking llatlinra. Of dhJd
there are only six examples, "being an average of one 10 each pargana? m.,
A'zara-aMd and Murshid-dbad, each commemorating a local Governor in the
reign of Awangzeb ; Anrang-sibad, dating from the same period ; Sa'dab&d, the
chief town on the demesne of Shah-jahun's minister Sa'dnllali KMn ; and Asaf-
ab&d, Bir-ali-abad, Grulshan-dbad, and Saliin-abadj named after founders of less
historical distinction.
Having thus passed in review every atEs denoting eplace* that we have
been able to identify, we proceed to consider the second class of namesĄ rir.,
those in which the affix signifies 'possession.' The examples under this head
are equally numerous and in a philological point of view of no less importance ;
but the whole series is traversed by a single cine, and if this is grasped at the
beginning, it is found to lead so directly from one formation to another, that it
precludes all necessity of pausing for lengthy consideration at any particular
stage of the argument. Obviously, the simplest mode of expressing possession
is by attaching to the name of the owner the grammatical particle, whatever
it may be, which in consequence of its familiar use has Been selected as the
special sign of the genitive or possessive case. This in modern Hindustani is
Ira or K, which we find employed in the following ten words, viz., Barfei,
Mahanki, Berka, MarMkii, Bhartiyaka, Bhureka, Kameka, Marlmakfi, Salaka,
and Stirka, In the last six names on the list the former part of the compound,
viz., Bhartiya, Blnira, &c., is known to be the name of the Jit founder of the
village. Thus we have an indisputable proof thai about a century ago it was
not at all an uncommon thing to form names of places in this way. If no
earlier examples of the formation occnr? it is most reasonable to explain their
absence by inferring, as in the case of ;mn, that in the course of time the rough
edges, that once marked the place where the word and its affix joined? have
become so worn and smoothed down that they can no longer be felt, How by
eliding the k—a very simple proceeding and one qnite in accordance wifii rule
—an amalgamation would be effected between the two elements of the com-
pound which would totally alter their original appearance ; and we have only
to reinsert it to discover the meaning of many names otherwise unintelligible.